Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byPaula Heath Modified over 6 years ago

2
IIIIIIIV Topic 6 The Mole I. Molar Conversions

3
A. What is the Mole? n A counting number (like a dozen) n Avogadro’s number (N A ) n 1 mol = 6.02 10 23 representative particles (atoms, ions, formula units, or molecules If you could spend 1 million dollars per second, how many years will it take to spend a mole of dollars, given there are 31536000 seconds per year. 1.91 x 10 10 years or 19.1 billion years

4
n 1 mole of hockey pucks would equal the mass of the moon! A. What is the Mole? n 1 mole of pennies would cover the Earth 1/4 mile deep! n 1 mole of basketballs would fill a bag the size of the earth!

5
A. Moles n Used as a Conversion Factor: n 1 mole = 6.02 x 10 23 so… n Moles converted to Particles = # mol 6.02 10 23 Particles 1 mol

6
A. Moles n Rep. Particles converted to moles = # particles 1 mol 6.02 10 23 Particles

7
B. Molar Mass n Mass of 1 mole of an element or compound. n Atomic mass tells the... atomic mass units per atom (amu) grams per mole (g/mol) n Round to 2 decimal places

8
B. Molar Mass Examples n carbon n aluminum n zinc 12.01 g/mol 26.98 g/mol 65.39 g/mol

9
B. Molar Mass Examples n water n sodium chloride H2OH2O (2x1.01) + 16.00 = 18.02 g/mol NaCl 22.99 + 35.45 = 58.44 g/mol

10
B. Molar Mass Examples n sodium hydrogen carbonate n sucrose NaHCO 3 22.99 + 1.01 + 12.01 + (3x16.00) = 84.01 g/mol C 12 H 22 O 11 (12x12.01) + (22x1.01) + (11x16.00) = 342.34 g/mol

11
C. Molar Conversions molar mass (g/mol) MASS IN GRAMS MOLES NUMBER OF PARTICLES 6.02 10 23 (particles/mol)

12
C. Molar Conversion Examples n How many molecules are in 2.50 moles of C 12 H 22 O 11 ? 2.50 mol 6.02 10 23 molecules 1 mol = 1.51 10 24 molecules C 12 H 22 O 11

13
C. Molar Conversion Examples n How many moles of carbon are in 26 g of carbon? 26 g C 1 mol C 12.01 g C = 2.2 mol C

14
C. Molar Conversion Examples n Find the mass of 2.1 10 24 molecules of NaHCO 3. 2.1 10 24 molecules 1 mol 6.02 10 23 molecules = 290 g NaHCO 3 84.01 g 1 mol

15
IIIIIIIV II. Formula Calculations Topic 6 – The Mole

16
A. Percentage Composition n the percentage by mass of each element in a compound

17
100 = A. Percentage Composition %Cu = 127.10 g Cu 159.17 g Cu 2 S 100 = %S = 32.07 g S 159.17 g Cu 2 S 79.852% Cu 20.15% S n Find the % composition of Cu 2 S.

18
%Fe = 28 g 36 g 100 = 78% Fe %O = 8.0 g 36 g 100 = 22% O n Find the percentage composition of a sample that is 28 g Fe and 8.0 g O. A. Percentage Composition

19
n How many grams of copper are in a 38.0-gram sample of Cu 2 S? (38.0 g Cu 2 S)(0.79852) = 30.3 g Cu Cu 2 S is 79.852% Cu A. Percentage Composition

20
100 = %H 2 O = 36.04 g 147.02 g 24.51% H 2 O n Find the mass percentage of water in calcium chloride dihydrate, CaCl 2 2H 2 O? A. Percentage Composition

21
B. Empirical Formula C2H6C2H6 CH 3 reduce subscripts n Smallest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound

22
B. Empirical Formula Calculation 1. Find mass (or %) of each element. 2. Find moles of each element. 3. Divide moles by the smallest # to find subscripts. 4. When necessary, multiply subscripts by 2, 3, or 4 to get whole #’s.

23
B. Empirical Formula n Find the empirical formula for a sample of 25.9% N and 74.1% O. 25.9 g 1 mol 14.01 g = 1.85 mol N 74.1 g 1 mol 16.00 g = 4.63 mol O 1.85 mol = 1 N = 2.5 O

24
B. Empirical Formula N 1 O 2.5 Need to make the subscripts whole numbers multiply by 2 N2O5N2O5

25
C. Molecular Formula n “True Formula” - the actual number of atoms in a compound CH 3 C2H6C2H6 empirical formula molecular formula ?

26
C. Molecular Formula Calculation 1. Find the empirical formula. 2. Calculate the empirical formula molar mass. 3. Divide the molecular molar mass by the empirical molar mass. 4. Multiply each subscript by the answer from step 3.

27
C. Molecular Formula n The empirical formula for ethylene is CH 2. Find the molecular formula if the molecular mass is 28.06 g/mol? 28.06 g/mol 14.03 g/mol = 2.00 empirical mass = 14.03 g/mol (CH 2 ) 2 C 2 H 4

28
IIIIIIIV III. Molarity Topic 6 The Mole

29
A. Molarity n Concentration of a solution. total combined volume substance being dissolved

30
A. Molarity 2M HCl What does this mean?

31
B. Molarity Calculations molar mass (g/mol) 6.02 10 23 (particles/mol) MASS IN GRAMS MOLES NUMBER OF PARTICLES LITERS OF SOLUTION Molarity (mol/L) Aqueous solution

32
B. Molarity Calculations n How many grams of NaCl are required to make 0.500L of 0.25M NaCl? 0.500 L0.25 mol 1 L = 7.3 g NaCl 58.44 g 1 mol

33
B. Molarity Calculations n Find the molarity of a 250 mL solution containing 10.0 g of NaF. 10.0 g 1 mol 41.99 g = 0.238 mol NaF 0.238 mol 0.25 L M == 0.95M NaF

34
1 mol of any gas=22.4 L at STP C. Molar Volume at STP S tandard T emperature & P ressure 0°C and 1 atm

35
C. Molar Volume at STP Molar Mass (g/mol) 6.02 10 23 particles/mol MASS IN GRAMS MOLES NUMBER OF PARTICLES LITERS OF SOLUTION Molar Volume (22.4 L/mol) LITERS OF GAS AT STP Molarity (mol/L)

36
C. Molar Conversion Examples n How many Liters are in 2.50 moles of of Helium gas at STP? 2.50 mol 22.4 L 1 mol = 56.0 L He

37
C. Molar Conversion Examples n Find the mass of 137 L of SO 2 gas at STP. 137 L SO 2 1 mol 22.4 L SO 2 = 392 g SO 2 64.07 g 1 mol

Similar presentations

© 2021 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy.

Ads by Google